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Gene Bruno, MS, MHS

Gene Bruno is the Dean of Academics and Professor of Dietary Supplement Science for Huntington College of Health Sciences (a nationally accredited distance learning college offering diplomas and degrees in nutrition and other health science related subjects. Gene has two undergraduate Diplomas in Nutrition, a Bachelor’s in Nutrition, a Master’s in Nutrition, a Graduate Diploma in Herbal Medicine, and a Master’s in Herbal Medicine. As a 32 year veteran of the Dietary Supplement industry, Gene has educated and trained natural product retailers and health care professionals, has researched and formulated natural products for dozens of dietary supplement companies, and has written articles on nutrition, herbal medicine, nutraceuticals and integrative health issues for trade, consumer magazines, and peer-reviewed publications. Gene's latest book, A Guide to Complimentary Treatments for Diabetes, is available on Amazon.com, and other fine retailers.


Most people contract one or more colds every year. A cold is caused by viruses that infect cells of the upper respiratory tract. Since there are over 200 different species and strains of these viruses, a cold caused by one virus does not protect a person from catching a cold cause by a different one. This explains why colds can occur one after another or several times a year. An acute sore throat, on the other hand can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection. If your sore throat...

Varicose veins are elongated, dilated, and tortuous superficial veins usually seen in the lower extremities. They occur because of incompetency in the valves of the vein, which permits a backflow of blood in the dependent position. The cause of valvular incompetence is unclear, but predisposing factors include familial tendency, inherent weakness in the vein walls, congenital arteriovenous fistulas, pregnancy, ascites, occupations requiring prolonged standing, obesity, and...

Asthma is a respiratory disorder in which breathing difficulty is caused by temporary narrowing of the bronchi, the airways branching from the trachea to the lungs. In many asthma patients, inflammation of the lining of the airways leads to increased sensitivity to a variety of environmental triggers that can cause narrowing of the airways, resulting in obstruction of airflow and breathing difficulty. In some patients, the mucus glands in the airways produce excessive thick mucus,...

CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) is a free fatty acid that may prove to be essential to our diet. Studies show that CLA can play a vital role in reducing body fat and improving muscle tone. In the past, it was readily available in beef and dairy products, but today, it is no longer present in great quantities. To obtain about 1000 mg of CLA in food you would have to consume three pounds of hamburger, twenty-five slices of American cheese or half a gallon of ice cream. Of course, the...

The heart is a functioning muscle and needs oxygen and fuel in order to do its work. It is the job of the coronary arteries to supply the necessary oxygen and nutrients to the muscle. When one of the three major coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked, blood flow to the muscle is reduced, resulting in angina pectoris—a feeling of tightness or pressure in the chest often associated with shortness of breath. At first, angina may only be obvious during periods of exercise or...

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Americans have failed to meet the RDA for several key nutrients, including calcium, magnesium, and zinc.1 Other research on both athletes and sedentary individuals indicated that their food intake was RDA-deficient in more than one-third of the seven minerals analyzed.2 In addition, research done by the USDA has shown that over a period of about 90 years, a 3–7 percent decrease in magnesium, zinc and...

Candidiasis is an infection by a yeast-like Candida fungus, known commonly as Candida albicans. Candida naturally resides in the human intestinal tract. Given a healthy immune system, a normal population of friendly intestinal bacteria and a normal gastrointestinal pH, Candida is essentially harmless. Unfortunately, this situation can easily be altered by prolonged treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, steroid drugs that weaken the immune system, and...

"Many clinicians have discovered that in the overwhelming majority of individuals with heartburn, indigestion, etc., it is underproduction of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) that is the problem, not overproduction."

Indigestion, or dyspepsia, commonly refers to general abdominal discomfort during and after meals and may be the result of specific diseases of the stomach or the intestines. The most frequently occurring symptoms are diarrhea, heartburn, abdominal...

Insomnia is the chronic inability to sleep or to remain asleep through the night. The condition is caused by a variety of physical and psychological factors. These include emotional stress, physical pain and discomfort, disturbances in brain function, drug abuse and drug dependence, neuroses, psychoses, and psychological problems that produce anxiety, irrational fears, and tensions. Conventional medical treatments may include giving sedatives, tranquilizers or hypnotics,...

A 2016 survey conducted by the National Coffee Association revealed that an average of about 56 percent of all Americans 18 years and older drink coffee daily.1 Likewise, on any given day, more than 50 percent of the American population drinks tea.2 Unquestionably, that represents a lot of caffeine being consumed—but is that a good thing or a bad thing? The answer is that it could be either, depending upon the individual. This article will examine the pros and cons of...

About sixty to seventy percent of all people with diabetes have some form of nerve damage, called neuropathy (or more accurately, neuropathies, since there is more than one kind). High blood sugar levels over a long period of time damages nerves throughout the body, but those in the hands and feet are most often damaged. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can include pain and numbness, particularly in the hands and feet, or problems with digestion, the urinary tract, blood vessels and...

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common enlargement of the prostate gland as a man ages. Though the prostate continues to grow during most of a man’s life, the enlargement doesn’t usually cause symptoms before age 40, but more than half of men in their sixties, and as many as 90 percent in their seventies and eighties have some symptoms of BPH. These are typically referred to as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and include incomplete bladder emptying, frequent...

What are they?
The water-soluble B vitamins are collectively referred to as "B-Complex." They include thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin or niacinamide (B3), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin), biotin and pantothenic acid (B5). In addition, choline, inositol and PABA (paraaminobenzoic acid) are compounds that are not technically B vitamins but which have related functions and so are often included with B-Complex...

Carrageenan, an extract of red seaweed, is a good source of soluble fiber. It is widely used in the food industry, for its gelling, thickening, and stabilizing properties. Carrageenan is a vegetarian and vegan alternative to gelatin in some applications. It has also been the subject of many long-term dietary studies under defined regulatory conditions en route to its current global regulatory status. While some indicate that carrageenan safely passes through rat GI tracts without...

Green tea has been consumed for more than three thousand years for both its refreshing and health promoting benefits. In fact, a historical perspective1 on green and black tea reported that they are among the most widely consumed beverages in the world, second only to water. Dogma has it that, for 4,000 years people knew tea might have health-promoting properties since it was frequently used as fluid supply for patients suffering from infectious diseases. This article will...

It wasn’t so long ago that cocoa and chocolate were considered unhealthy. In fact, back in the late 70s and early 80s carob was being touted as a chocolate substitute—albeit a very sad and far less delicious excuse for a substitute. Since then, study after study has been published extolling the health-promoting properties of cocoa and chocolate. Of course chocolate bars also contain sugars, fats and other dietary components whose intake we’re trying to limit, but the cocoa...

When skin is exposed to the sun, the body's protective mechanism against oxidative damage is an increase in skin pigmentation (i.e. increase in melanin production)—also known as getting a tan. In addition to the tan, however, a localized hyperpigmented lesion, also known as age spot, solar, or senile lentigo, may occur, especially in Asian and Caucasian populations.1 These benign-pigmented lesions are not only considered unattractive on visible areas of the skin, such as...

The prostate is an important male gland that secretes a fluid found in semen.1 In addition, the urethra (the tube through which urine flows) runs through the prostate, so changes in prostate structure, such as prostate enlargement, can profoundly and negatively affect urinary function. The most common issue that impacts prostate health for most men is benign prostatic hyperplasia. A more serious, common issue is prostate cancer. This article will review these problems, and...

You really shouldn’t…but that piece of cheesecake looks so good, and it’s been so long since you last had a slice — so you go for it. But shortly thereafter, you feel the rumbling of stomach and intestinal discontent, and — groan — you wish you had resisted.

A cast-iron stomach no more
When you were younger it seemed like you had a castiron stomach and could eat almost anything without having to pay the piper — but that’s not the...

As we grow older, we may grow wiser, but we can also experience age-related memory impairment (ARMI). ARMI is relatively common1 and should not be confused with Alzheimer’s or other dementia, while ARMI is simply mild memory problems associated with normal aging (e.g. “Where did I put my keys?”). Even so, the memory loss and cognitive slowing associated with ARMI can interfere with our daily routines.2 In fact, according to a national survey, worries over...